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Philosophy


Philosophy as a category is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument. The word "philosophy" comes from the Greek philosophia, which literally means "love of wisdom".

 
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Suffer No More

By: AiRAtmaninRavi AiR

Suffering is a choice. We don't need to suffer. This may come as a surprise but it is the Truth. We choose to suffer due to ignorance that drowns us in misery and sorrow. What is suffering? While we all experience it, have we gone on a quest to understand what the primary cause of misery is? We live in this ignorance, this myth, that suffering is an unavoidable part of life. Suffer No More is an analysis of suffering, what causes it and how if we realize the Truth ...

Suffering is a choice. We don't need to suffer. This may come as a surprise but it is the Truth. We choose to suffer due to ignorance that drowns us in misery and sorrow. What is suffering? While we all experience it, have we gone on a quest to understand what the primary cause of misery is? We live in this ignorance, this myth, that suffering is an unavoidable part of life. Suffer No More is an analysis of suffering, what causes it and how if we realize the Truth ...

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Questions You Must Answer Before You Die

By: AiRAtmaninRavi AiR

Most of us live and die but we don’t ask the question – Why? We just exist! We don’t want to invest time in asking essential questions which are actually needed to lead a fulfilling and blissful life. We should keep on trying over and over again. We must never quit. When we ask questions, investigate, read, research, discuss, and introspect, we will ultimately realize the Truth. Let’s start our quest, now!

Most of us live and die but we don’t ask the question – Why? We just exist! We don’t want to invest time in asking essential questions which are actually needed to lead a fulfilling and blissful life. We should keep on trying over and over again. We must never quit. When we ask questions, investigate, read, research, discuss, and introspect, we will ultimately realize the Truth. Let’s start our quest, now!

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Imre Lakatos: Euristica și toleranța metodologică

By: Nicolae Sfetcu

O analiză a conceptelor de euristica și toleranță metodologică dezvoltate de Lakatos, pe baza articolului ”Falsification and the methodology of scientific research programmes”, publicat pentru prima dată în 1970 și apoi în cartea The methodology of scientific research programmes, Volume I. Am analizat, în acest text, exemplificarea autorului pentru programul de cercetare al emisiei de lumină (în fizica cuantică timpurie) al lui Bohr. O exemplificare detaliată a conceptel...

”Metodologia programelor de cercetare științifică" este o revizuire radicală a criteriului de demarcație al lui Popper între știință și neștiință, conducând la o teorie nouă a raționalității științifice. Pentru Popper, o teorie este științifică doar dacă este falsificabilă empiric, adică dacă este posibil să specificăm declarații observaționale care ar dovedi că este greșită. O teorie este o știință bună dacă este refutabilă, riscantă, poate rezolva probleme și rezistă l...

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Διάσημοι Άνθρωποι : Τί η Ζωή τους Αποκαλύπτει

By: George Pan Kouloukis

Η ζωή των διασήμων ανθρώπων αποκαλύπτει ότι οι καλές και άσχημες εποχές στη ζωή τους εναλλάχθησαν από καλές σε άσχημες και αντιστρόφως, σύμφωνα με έναν ορισμένο τρόπο. Το σπουδαιότερο όμως είναι ότι και των απλών ανθρώπων οι εποχές εναλλάσσονται σύμφωνα με τον ίδιο τρόπο, όπως θα δήτε στο βιβλίο. Αυτό σημαίνει ότι μπορούμε να ξέρουμε πώς οι εποχές μας εναλλάσσονται τη ζωή μας και να επωφεληθούμε.

23. Η Εκπληκτική Ανακάλυψη Από τις εναλλαγές των καλών και άσχημων εποχών στη ζωή των διασήμων ανθρώπων που είδαμε σ’ αυτό το βιβλίο, πολύ σημαντικές παρατηρήσεις εξάγονται. Αρχίζουμε με τις εναλλαγές των καλών και άσχημων εποχών στη ζωή του Μπετόβεν. Όπως είδαμε στο 1ο κεφάλαιο, οι καλές και άσχημες εποχές του εναλλάχθησαν στις χρονολογίες 1776, 1792, 1809 και 1825. Ανάμεσα σε κάθε μία απ’ αυτές τις χρονολογίες υπάρχουν 16-17 χρόνια. Όμως αυτή η εναλλαγή των ε...

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Be Happy In The Now!

By: AiRatmanInRavi AiR; AiRatmanInRavi AiR

It is being happy in the NOW. Every time we let the suffering of yesterday take charge of our life, we destroy the joy of today. When our thoughts anxiously jump into what may happen in the future, we lose the tranquility of the present moment. We seem to be like helpless monkeys jumping from one branch to another, from yesterday to tomorrow. And in the bargain, we lose the gift of being happy in the present. Is there a way to escape this monkey business jumping from yes...

It is being happy in the NOW. Every time we let the suffering of yesterday take charge of our life, we destroy the joy of today. When our thoughts anxiously jump into what may happen in the future, we lose the tranquility of the present moment. We seem to be like helpless monkeys jumping from one branch to another, from yesterday to tomorrow. And in the bargain, we lose the gift of being happy in the present. Is there a way to escape this monkey business jumping from yes...

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Evoluția și etica eugeniei

By: Nicolae Sfetcu

Așa cum este definită eugenia, este foarte dificil de făcut o diferențiere clară între știință (medicină, ingineria genetică) și eugenie. Și de stabilit o linie peste care ingineria genetică nu ar trebui să treacă, conform unor norme morale, juridice și religioase. Atâta timp cât acceptăm ajutorul geneticii în găsirea unor modalități de combatere a cancerului, diabetului sau HIV, acceptăm în mod implicit și eugenia pozitivă, conform definiției actuale. Și atâta timp cât ...

Termenul eugenie, ca practică şi domeniu de studiu, a fost inventat către Francis Galton în 1883, în cartea sa Investigaţii în facultatea umană si dezvoltarea sa (F. Galton 1983)bazându-se pe lucrarea recentă a vărului său, Charles Darwin, genetica mendelieni şi teoriile lui August Weismann (teoria plasmei germenilor, conform căreia informaţia ereditară este transmisă numai de celulele germinale din gonade (ovare şi testicule), nu de celule somatice) (Blom 2008). Galton ...

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Мир деяний

By: Дан Берг

На следующий день после праздника Пурим, утомленные обильным винопитием накануне, хасиды развивают философскую теорию, изложенную автором в шутливой форме.

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Epistemologia serviciilor de informaţii

By: Nicolae Sfetcu

Despre analogia existentă între aspectele epistemologice şi metodologice ale activităţii serviciilor de informaţii şi unele discipline ştiinţifice, pledând pentru o abordare mai ştiinţifică a procesului de culegere şi analiză de informaţii din cadrul ciclului de informaţii. Afirm că în prezent aspectele teoretice, ontologice şi epistemologice, în activitatea multor servicii de informaţii, sunt subestimate, determinând înţelegere incompletă a fenomenelor actuale şi creând...

Informaţia este putere. Percepţia aceasta s-a intensificat în cel de al doilea război mondial, când s-au formalizat şi a crescut semnificativ numărul serviciilor de informaţii. În toate ţările s-au înfiinţat agenţii şi departamente complet noi pentru a face faţă ameninţărilor. In prezent, guvernele cheltuiesc sume imense pentru agenţiile de informaţii considerate o componentă majoră a sistemelor de securitate naţională. Serviciile de informaţii au ca sarcină principală i...

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Buclele cauzale în călătoria în timp

By: Nicolae Sfetcu

Despre posibilitatea călătoriei în timp pe baza mai multor lucrări de specialitate, printre care cele ale lui Nicholas J.J. Smith ("Time Travel", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy”), William Grey (”Troubles with Time Travel”), Ulrich Meyer (”Explaining causal loops”), Simon Keller și Michael Nelson (”Presentists should believe in time-travel”), Frank Arntzenius și Tim Maudlin ("Time Travel and Modern Physics") și David Lewis (“The Paradoxes of Time Travel”). Lucrar...

Călătoria în timp implică deplasarea într-un timp diferit de cel prezent, în trecut sau în viitor, în principiu fără o deplasare în spațiu cu referire la un sistem de coordonate local. Călătoria în timp poate fi făcută de un corp material care poate fi sau nu o ființă vie, și pentru care se folosește de obicei un dispozitiv special denumit mașina timpului. Călătoria în timp este un concept recunoscut în filosofie și știință, dar a cărui posibilitatea este foarte disputa...

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Keep Your Soul Alive : Quotes to Awaken You: Quotes to Awaken You

By: Jayita Bhattacharjee

This book illustrates the phases of our journey through simple quotes that awaken the dying music of life.

Grief reveals you and in such a revealing, does the astonishing light of your soul light this universe.

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Distincția dintre falsificare și respingere în problema demarcație...

By: Nicolae Sfetcu

În ciuda criticilor teoriei falsificabilității propuse de Karl Popper pentru demarcarea între știință și ne-știință, în principal pseudoștiință, acest criteriu este încă foarte util, și perfect valabil după perfecționarea lui de către Popper și adepții lui. Mai mult, chiar și în versiunea sa inițială, considerată de Lakatos ca ”dogmatică”, Popper nu a afirmat că această metodologie este un criteriu absolut de demarcare: un singur contra-exemplu nu este suficient pentru a...

Autorii la care apelez în argumentația mea au încercat să clarifice aspectele legate de acțiunea la distanță și implicarea lui Dumnezeu pe baza unor investigații textuale în principal din Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (prima ediție apărând în 1687), (Newton 1999b) corespondența lui Newton cu Richard Bentley (1692/93), (Bentley 1693) și Interogările pe care Newton le-a introdus la sfârșitul cărții Optica în primele trei ediții (între 1704 și 1721). (Newton...

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The Fourth Factor

By: AiR AtmanInRavi; AiR AtmanInRavi

Man has to acknowledge that there is a mysterious factor, a factor lesser known to man that controls the nal outcome of all his efforts - the 4th Factor. Without discovering this 4th Factor, man will never reach the zenith. He will be helpless and capable of doing nothing. He will continue to struggle in misery. Not only will he be unable to make the possible, possible, but also what is possible, will become impossible without the 4th Factor. Come, let us discover the 4th Factor!

Man has to acknowledge that there is a mysterious factor, a factor lesser known to man that controls the nal outcome of all his efforts - the 4th Factor. Without discovering this 4th Factor, man will never reach the zenith. He will be helpless and capable of doing nothing. He will continue to struggle in misery. Not only will he be unable to make the possible, possible, but also what is possible, will become impossible without the 4th Factor. Come, let us discover the 4th Factor!

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Les réalités de la réalité - deuxième partie : vers une compréhens...

By: Fritz Dufour

La différence entre la première partie et la deuxième partie – volumes 1 et 2 – de cette série est que, dans la première partie, l'auteur a montré comment ce que nous appelons la réalité commence avec le moi intérieur, alors que la deuxième partie décrit ce qui, en réalité, affecte et modifie l'environnement ou la réalité et quels sont les facteurs derrière cette dynamique. Ce qui impacte et modifie l'environnement, c'est la science. Ce volume 2 commence par montrer comm...

Si la science se définit comme tout ce qui peut changer ou potentiellement changer l'environnement, il va sans dire que la science est aussi tout ce qui peut changer ou potentiellement changer l'homme lui-même parce que l'homme est au centre de la science. La nature de la science reflète la nature de l'homme. Bien que la science ne soit pas stationnaire et qu'elle change à mesure que notre environnement change, étant donné que la méthode scientifique et les paradigmes sc...

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The Realities of Reality - Part II: Making Sense of Why Modern Sci...

By: Fritz Dufour

The difference between Part I and Part II – Volumes 1 & 2 – of this series, is that in Part I the author showed how what we call reality starts with the inner self whereas Part II describes what, in fact, impacts and modifies the environment or reality and what are the factors behind that dynamics. What impacts and modifies the environment is science. This Volume 2 starts by showing how technology plays an important role in scientific progress. Although the relationship ...

If science is defined as anything that can change or potentially change the environment, it goes without saying that science is also anything that can change or potentially change man himself because man is at the center of science. The nature of science reflects the nature of man. Although science is not stationary and that it changes as our environment changes, because scientific method and scientific paradigms change at different eras, scientific progress is multiface...

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The Singularities as Ontological Limits of the General Relativity

By: Nicolae Sfetcu

The singularities from the general relativity resulting by solving Einstein's equations were and still are the subject of many scientific debates: Are there singularities in spacetime, or not? Big Bang was an initial singularity? If singularities exist, what is their ontology? Is the general theory of relativity a theory that has shown its limits in this case? In this essay I argue that there are singularities, and the general theory of relativity, as any other scientif...

In classical vision, space and time are containers; matter is the content. The distinctive property of matter is that it carries energy and impulse, preserved over time, resulting in energy and impulse being fundamental ontologically. (Norton 2012) GR generated various early philosophical interpretations. His adherents have highlighted the "relativization of inertia" and the concept of simultaneity, Kantians and Neo-Kantians have underlined the approach of certain syn...

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Isaac Newton despre acțiunea la distanță în gravitație - Cu sau fă...

By: Nicolae Sfetcu

Interpretarea textelor lui Isaac Newton a suscitat numeroase controverse, până în zilele noastre. Una din cele mai aprinse dezbateri este legată de acțiunea între două corpuri aflate la distanță unul de celălalt (atracția gravitațională), și în ce măsură Newton a implicat pe Dumnezeu în acest caz. Practic, majoritatea lucrărilor discută patru tipuri de atracții gravitaționale în cazul corpurilor aflate la distanță: acțiunea la distanță directă ca proprietate intrinsecă a...

Autorii la care apelez în argumentația mea au încercat să clarifice aspectele legate de acțiunea la distanță și implicarea lui Dumnezeu pe baza unor investigații textuale în principal din Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (prima ediție apărând în 1687), (Newton 1999b) corespondența lui Newton cu Richard Bentley (1692/93), (Bentley 1693) și Interogările pe care Newton le-a introdus la sfârșitul cărții Optica în primele trei ediții (între 1704 și 1721). (Newton...

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Who Are You & Why Are You Here?

By: AiR AtmanInRavi

This book will help you start a quest, and then you can look for the answers you seek. It will give you a direction to help you reach your destination but it will not get you there. You have to walk. You must start, and you must not stop until you reach the top of the mountain. It may look steep and impossible. You will be challenged by your own mind. Some of your friends will tease you and the society might not understand your quest, but if you want to discover yourself...

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Time Travel

By: Nicolae Sfetcu

Time travel is a recognized concept in philosophy and science, but whose scope is highly disputed, giving rise to numerous paradoxes in both philosophy and science. Time travel is considered by some accepted both in general relativity and quantum mechanics, but there is a unanimous consensus that it is not feasible with current technology. (Hawkins 2010) The raised issues are different for the time travel in the past compared to the time travel in the future.

Time travel involves traveling in a time different from the present, in the past or in the future, basically without a space move with reference to a local coordinate system. Time travel can be made by a material body that may or may not be a living being, and for which a special device called the time machine is usually used. Time travel is a recognized concept in philosophy and science, but whose scope is highly disputed, giving rise to numerous paradoxes in both phil...

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Great Spiritual Leaders of History

By: Dennis Tucker

I feature many of the worlds most popular, Avatars, Enlightened Masters, and advanced Souls of the last 5000 years. I wanted to show that the Universal message of Truth can be found at all times and in all cultures. You will get to know the expected "Masters", but also a few that you may not have realized were highly advanced Souls.

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Success in Life : What Famous People's Lives Reveal

By: George Pan Kouloukis

Famous people’s lives reveal that the good and bad seasons in their lives alternated from good to bad and vice versa according to a certain pattern. A good season has given its place to a bad one at a certain moment, and a bad season has given its place to a good one also at a certain moment – and so on. Great German composer Ludwig van Beethoven, for example, went through a bad period of his life around the age of 32 because he had become totally deaf. Contemplatin...

Chapter 23. The Astonishing Discovery From the alternations of the good and bad seasons in the lives of the famous people we’ve seen in this book, very important observations are extracted. We start with Beethoven’s alternations of good and bad seasons. As we’ve seen in Chapter 1, his good and bad seasons alternated in 1776, 1792, 1809 and 1825. Between one of these dates there are 16-17 years. This alternation every 16-17 years happens however, in the lives of...

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