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Philosophy


Philosophy as a category is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument. The word "philosophy" comes from the Greek philosophia, which literally means "love of wisdom".

 
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Causal Theories of Reference for Proper Names

By: Nicolae Sfetcu

Presentation and comparison of the main causal theories of reference for proper names, and a proposal of a new approach based on the analogy of the causal chain of reference with the block chain from blockchain technology and Paul Ricœur's narrative theory. After a brief Introduction in which the types of sentences from the concept of possible worlds are reviewed, and an overview of the theory in the Causal Theory of Reference, I present the causal theory of the referenc...

In this article I highlight and compare the main causal theories of reference for proper names, and propose a new approach based on the analogy of the causal chain of reference with the block chain from blockchain technology and Paul Ricœur's narrative theory. After a brief Introduction in which the types of sentences from the concept of possible worlds are reviewed, and an overview of the theory in the Causal Theory of Reference, I present the causal theory of the refer...

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Flare: Opinions (Law, Human Rights and Politics)

By: Ankur Mutreja

Opinions are like flare, which can turn either way: they can spread like wild fire or encapsulate themselves within the bounds of personal integrity, and thus illuminate. I started writing opinions in the late 2008 through my blogs. I admit at times I did go wild with unsubstantiated accusations and surmises, leading to risky speculations and irresponsible opinions. Recently, I published a comprehensive book of my writings entitled "Writings @ Ankur Mutreja", and the pre...

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Light : Philosophy

By: Ankur Mutreja

What is Philosophy? Is it the exclusive domain of those who dream in abstract? Or is it the manifestation of the struggle of those who practice in material? Does it originate in the minds of professors like a Ganges flowing out from the hair-locks of "Lord" Shiva? Or is it rustic and puerile, evolving into maturity through the experiences of common men. I started writing philosophy without actually knowing that I was writing one. To start with, it was an outlet to projec...

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Évolution et éthique de l'eugénisme

By: Nicolae Sfetcu; Nicolae Sfetcu

Étant donné la définition de l'eugénisme, il est très difficile d'établir une distinction claire entre la science (médecine, ingénierie génétique) et l'eugénisme en tant que domaine inclus. Et pour définir une ligne sur laquelle l'ingénierie génétique ne devrait pas aller plus loin, conformément aux normes morales, juridiques et religieuses. Si nous acceptons l'aide de la génétique pour trouver des moyens de lutter contre le cancer, le diabète ou le VIH, nous acceptons é...

Dans cet article, j'essaie de faire valoir que, étant donné la définition de l'eugénisme, il est très difficile d'établir une distinction claire entre la science (médecine, ingénierie génétique) et l'eugénisme en tant que domaine inclus. Et pour définir une ligne sur laquelle l'ingénierie génétique ne devrait pas aller plus loin, conformément aux normes morales, juridiques et religieuses. Si nous acceptons l'aide de la génétique pour trouver des moyens de lutter contre l...

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Asamvedophanishad

By: Avyakta Anaamika

This is the only authentic and complete edition of the Asamvedopanishad, which proclaims, “Being begins where bhaava ends” to reinforce the ancient vedaantic Nirguna/ Non-identity as both the Means and End of Self-Realization/ Enlightenment. The mind is all bhaava, fabricating endless identities, the network of Maayaa. The root identity, Ahambhaava, seals off Being/ Truth, which defies all identity. The Upanishad resurrects the sovereign Socratic Enlightenment, freeing ...

People around tell you that if you had spiritual freedom you could get out of your sad predicament and you seek freedom accordingly. So it honestly becomes freedom for you, not the real freedom from yourself, as Nisargadatta Maharaj so happily puts it.

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Asamvedopanishad : Being Begins Where Bhaava Ends

By: Avyakta Anaamika

This is the only authentic and complete edition of the Asamvedopanishad, which proclaims, “Being begins where bhaava ends” to reinforce the ancient vedaantic Nirguna/ Non-identity as both the Means and End of Self-Realization/ Enlightenment. The mind is all bhaava, fabricating endless identities, the network of Maayaa. The root identity, Ahambhaava, seals off Being/ Truth, which defies all identity. The Upanishad resurrects the sovereign Socratic Enlightenment, freeing ...

BEING BEGINS WHERE BHAAVA ENDS

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Sacred Sanctuary : Light of the Inner Shrine: Light of the Inner S...

By: Jayita Bhattacharjee

This book sheds a light on the blessed beauties of the heart and the ways to travel to the light that we were born with. Too often we are confused living in the faster lanes of life, forgetting the art of living, leaving behind the contentment of how to live in the peace of that glow, as the light that glows inside-- lives in an eternity. How blessed life would be, if we could find ourselves back to that light again.

By knowing our truest essence, we enable our souls to convey the sacramental message of a conscious evolution that is wafting in the breeze around.

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Boucles causales dans le voyage dans le temps

By: Nicolae Sfetcu; Nicolae Sfetcu

À propos de la possibilité de voyager dans le temps sur la base de plusieurs ouvrages spécialisés, notamment ceux de Nicholas J. J. Smith (« Time Travel »), William Grey (« Troubles with Time Travel »), Ulrich Meyer (« Explaining causal loops »), Simon Keller and Michael Nelson (« Presentists should believe in time-travel »), Frank Arntzenius and Tim Maudlin (« Time Travel and Modern Physics »), et David Lewis (« The Paradoxes of Time Travel »). L'article commence par un...

Voyager dans le temps implique de voyager dans un temps différent du présent, du passé ou du futur, essentiellement sans déplacement dans l'espace par rapport à un système de coordonnées local. Le voyage dans le temps peut être effectué par un corps matériel qui peut être ou non un être vivant, et pour lequel un dispositif spécial appelé machine à voyager dans le temps est utilisé habituellement. Le voyage dans le temps est un concept reconnu en philosophie et en scienc...

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Teorii cauzale ale referinței pentru nume proprii

By: Nicolae Sfetcu; Nicolae Sfetcu

Evidențierea și compararea principalelor teorii cauzale ale referinței pentru nume proprii, și propunerea unei noi abordări pe baza analogiei lanțului cauzal al referinței cu lanțul de blocuri din tehnologia blockchain și teoria narativă a lui Paul Ricœur. După o scurtă Introducere în care trec în revistă tipurile de propoziții din conceptul de lumi posibile, și o prezentare generală a teoriei în Teoria cauzală a referinței, prezint teoria cauzală inițială a referinței p...

John Stuart Mill a susținut că numele pot fi împărțite în două tipuri: conotative și non-conotative. Numele proprii sunt singurele nume de obiecte care nu sunt conotative și nu au, în mod strict, nicio semnificație. (Mill 1882) John Searle susține că fiecare nume propriu este asociat cu un set de descrieri care determină referința. Astfel, numele denotează indirect. (John R. Searle 1958) Saul Kripke critică viziunea fregeană susținută de Searle, argumentând că numele ...

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Asamvedopanishad

By: Avyakta Anaamika

This is the only authentic and complete edition of the Asamvedopanishad, which proclaims, “Being begins where bhaava ends” to reinforce the ancient vedaantic Nirguna/ Non-identity as both the Means and End of Self-Realization/ Enlightenment. The mind is all bhaava, fabricating endless identities, the network of Maayaa. The root identity, Ahambhaava, seals off Being/ Truth, which defies all identity. The Upanishad resurrects the sovereign Socratic Enlightenment, freeing ...

People around tell you that if you had spiritual freedom you could get out of your sad predicament and you seek freedom accordingly. So it honestly becomes freedom for you, not the real freedom from yourself, as Nisargadatta Maharaj so happily puts it. (100.1) Q. Whatever one’s limitations, one’s constraints, there is tremendous joy in bhakti … A. Yes ... even so, please understand to be unworldly in fact is true bhakti. There is nothing indeed godly in all the commo...

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Les réalités de la ‘réalité’ – troisième partie : impacts de l’opt...

By: Fritz Dufour

Le thème principal de ce livre est l’impact de l’optimisation de la vitesse et du temps sur la réalité, ou plus précisément sur notre société moderne. Mais tout d’abord, il jette les bases en explorant la physique qui sous-tend les concepts de vitesse et de temps, comment ils sont apparus, comment nous en avons pris conscience, et comment le nouveau monde de la vitesse a émergé, et pourquoi semble-t-il inéluctable? Il explore la vitesse de la lumière et la vitesse du son...

Vitesse et Temps. Ces deux notions sont en train de changer notre monde et notre réalité et nous en sommes tous les instigateurs. Nous avons tous un rôle à jouer dans cette transformation. Il n'y a pas à sortir de là. Nous devons être préparés. Cependant, le problème est qu’il s’agit d’un changement et que, par nature, nous résistons au changement. Mais le changement, surtout en ce qui concerne la vitesse et le temps, ne doit pas être négligé. Se précipiter pour gagner d...

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The Realities of ‘Reality’ – Part III: Impacts of Speed and Time O...

By: Fritz Dufour

The main theme of this book is the impacts of speed and time optimization on reality, or more precisely on our modern society. But first, it sets the background by exploring the physics behind the concepts of speed and time, how they came about, how we became aware of them, and how did the new world of speed emerge, and why does it seem to be inescapable? It explores the speed of light and the speed of sound by linking them to our environment. It introduces the notion of...

Speed and Time. These two notions are changing our world and our reality, and we all are the instigators. We all have a part to play in that transformation. There is no escaping it. We have to be prepared. However, the problem is, it is a change, and, by nature, we are resistant to change. But change, especially in relation to speed and time is not to be overlooked. Rushing to save time. Is that true? One would think that a fast-paced lifestyle would lead to more time av...

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The distinction between falsification and refutation in the demarc...

By: Nicolae Sfetcu

Despite the criticism of Karl Popper's falsifiability theory for the demarcation between science and non-science, mainly pseudo-science, this criterion is still very useful, and perfectly valid after it was perfected by Popper and his followers. Moreover, even in his original version, considered by Lakatos as "dogmatic", Popper did not assert that this methodology is an absolute demarcation criterion: a single counter-example is not enough to falsify a theory; a theory c...

In this paper I argue that, despite the criticism of Karl Popper's falsifiability theory for the demarcation between science and non-science, mainly pseudo-science, this criterion is still very useful, and perfectly valid after it was perfected by Popper and his followers. Moreover, even in his original version, considered by Lakatos as "dogmatic", Popper did not assert that this methodology is an absolute demarcation criterion: a single counter-example is not enough to ...

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Isaac Newton on the Action at a Distance in Gravity: With or witho...

By: Nicolae Sfetcu

The interpretation of Isaac Newton's texts has sparked controversy to this day. One of the most heated debates relates to the action between two bodies distant from each other (the gravitational attraction), and to what extent Newton involved God in this case. Practically, most of the papers discuss four types of gravitational attractions in the case of remote bodies: direct distance action as intrinsic property of bodies in epicurean sense; direct remote action divinely...

The interpretation of Isaac Newton's texts has sparked controversy to this day. One of the most heated debates relates to the action between two bodies distant from each other (the gravitational attraction), and to what extent Newton involved God in this case. Practically, most of the papers discuss four types of gravitational attractions in the case of remote bodies: direct distance action as intrinsic property of bodies in epicurean sense; direct remote action divinely...

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Causal Loops in Time Travel

By: Nicolae Sfetcu

About the possibility of time traveling based on several specialized works, including those of Nicholas J. J. Smith ("Time Travel"), William Grey (”Troubles with Time Travel”), Ulrich Meyer (”Explaining causal loops”), Simon Keller and Michael Nelson (”Presentists should believe in time-travel”), Frank Arntzenius and Tim Maudlin ("Time Travel and Modern Physics"), and David Lewis (“The Paradoxes of Time Travel”). The article begins with an Introduction in which I make a ...

Time travel involves traveling in a time different from the present, in the past or in the future, basically without a space move with reference to a local coordinate system. Time travel can be made by a material body that may or may not be a living being, and for which a special device called the time machine is usually used. Time travel is a recognized concept in philosophy and science, but whose scope is highly disputed, giving rise to numerous paradoxes in both phil...

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वेदों का सर्व-युगजयी धर्म (संक्षिप्त) : वेदों की मूल अवधारणा: वेदो...

By: Ram Pratap Singh; डॉ. श्रीकान्त सिंह, Co-Author

वेद चेतना का विज्ञान है |

वेद चेतना का विज्ञान है |

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Success is not happiness, happiness is success

By: AiRatmanInRavi AiRatmanInRavi; AiRatmanInRavi AiRatmanInRavi

The whole world is seeking Success Everybody wants to succeed. Somebody wants to be a billionaire while somebody else wants to win the World Cup. An actor wants to make it to the Oscars, just as a child wants to get the first rank in class. If we observe humanity, everybody seems to be in a chase to become an ace. Everybody wants to be an achiever, a winner! Nobody wants to be a loser. Why is the whole world in this race for Success? What is the reward of Success that m...

The whole world is seeking Success Everybody wants to succeed. Somebody wants to be a billionaire while somebody else wants to win the World Cup. An actor wants to make it to the Oscars, just as a child wants to get the first rank in class. If we observe humanity, everybody seems to be in a chase to become an ace. Everybody wants to be an achiever, a winner! Nobody wants to be a loser. Why is the whole world in this race for Success? What is the reward of Success that m...

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GOD = HAPPINESS

By: AiRatmanInRavi AiRatmanInRavi; AiRatmanInRavi AiRatmanInRavi

We all want to be happy and we struggle to remain in a state of peace, joy, and bliss. Some of us are busy trying to achieve something that will make us happy, while others are blissful, just content with what they have. Most of us, who believe in God, go to our God for happiness. We pray when we have problems that are beyond our control. But have we really understood the connection between God and Happiness? We understand what it means to be happy, especially when we c...

We all want to be happy and we struggle to remain in a state of peace, joy, and bliss. Some of us are busy trying to achieve something that will make us happy, while others are blissful, just content with what they have. Most of us, who believe in God, go to our God for happiness. We pray when we have problems that are beyond our control. But have we really understood the connection between God and Happiness? We understand what it means to be happy, especially when we c...

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Controversa dintre Isaac Newton și Robert Hooke despre prioritatea...

By: Nicolae Sfetcu

Una din cele mai disputate controverse privind prioritatea unor descoperiri științifice este cea privind legea gravitației universale, între Isaac Newton și Robert Hooke. În acest eseu extind o lucrare mai veche pe aceeași temă, ”Isaac Newton vs. Robert Hooke în legea gravitației universale”. Hooke l-a acuzat pe Newton de plagiat, preluându-i ideile exprimate în lucrările anterioare. În această lucrare încerc să arăt, pe baza unor analize anterioare, că ambii oameni de ș...

Imre Lakatos (1922–1974) a fost unul dintre filozofii moderni ai științei și matematicii. Principala sa contribuție în filosofie a fost dezvoltarea conceptului de metodologie a programelor de cercetare științifică și utilizarea acestei metodologie în reconstrucția rațională a științei. Lakatos își prezintă metodologia în contrast cu sistemele propuse de Popper, Kuhn și Feyerabend, deși de la fiecare a preluat din idei, acceptând un falsificaționism modificat și ideea de ...

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Singularitățile ca limite ontologice ale relativității generale

By: Nicolae Sfetcu

Singularitățile la care se ajunge în relativitatea generală prin rezolvarea ecuațiilor lui Einstein au fost și încă mai sunt subiectul a numeroase dezbateri științifice: Există sau nu, singularități? Big Bang a fost o singularitate inițială? Dacă singularitățile există, care este ontologia acestora? Este teoria generală a relativității o teorie care și-a arătat limitele în acest caz? Există singularități, iar teoria generală a relativității, ca de altfel oricare altă te...

Singularitățile la care se ajunge în relativitatea generală prin rezolvarea ecuațiilor lui Einstein au fost și încă mai sunt subiectul a numeroase dezbateri științifice: Există sau nu, singularități? Big Bang a fost o singularitate inițială? Dacă singularitățile există, care este ontologia acestora? Este teoria generală a relativității o teorie care și-a arătat limitele în acest caz? În acest eseu argumentez faptul că există singularități, iar teoria generală a relativi...

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